World Applications

World Applications

marine spatial planningMSP Around the Globe

Marine spatial management is gaining considerable importance all around the world. Various countries have started to use marine spatial management to achieve sustainable use and biodiversity conservation in ocean and coastal areas (see examples below).

Initially the concept of marine spatial planning, and one of its primary tool, ocean zoning, was stimulated by international and national interests in developing marine protected areas (MPAs). More recent attention has been placed on planning and managing multiple uses of marine space, particularly in areas where use conflicts are already well known and specified. In various countries, marine bioregional planning concepts are being used as a first step to make ecosystem-based marine spatial management a reality.

If you know about marine spatial planning initiatives in your country that are similar in scope and scale to those listed below, please contact us so we can incorporate that work in our analysis of spatial management around the world.

For a summary of MSP activities by country see table below.

COUNTRYINITIATIVECOMMENTS
AFRICA
Angola
EEZ and Territorial Sea
MSP started in 2016 with financial and technical assistance of GIZ
Madagascar
EEZ and Territorial Sea
MSP discussions just begun at national level; new Ministry of the Seas established
Mauritania
MSP being considered for the Mauritanian shelf break area lying within the EEZ
Mauritius
EEZ and Territorial Sea
Mauritius announced in December 2016 development of a marine spatial plan for its EEZ
Morocco“Blue Belt” InitiativeNew initiative to build sustainable fisheries, resilience to climate change, and establish marine protected areas supported by the Mohammed VI Foundation for Environmental Protection
Namibia
EEZ and Territorial Sea
MSP started in 2016 with financial and technical assistance of GIZ; interagency MSP task force formed in late 2016
Seychelles
Seychelles Marine Spatial Planning Initiative
A MSP process focused on planning for and management of the sustainable and long-term use and health of the Seychelles EEZ. The MSP Initiative is a government-led process, with planning and facilitation managed by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and TNC Canada in partnership with th government of the Seychelles. Funding for the Initiative is being provided through a number of grants to Government of Seychelles and an Oceans 5 grant awarded to TNC.
South Africa
EEZ and Territorial Sea
MSP started with financial and technical assistance of GIZ; draft MSP legislation and framework completed in 2016; draft MSP bill approved by Cabinet in February 2017; planning for four regions covering entire EEZ to be completed by 2021
ASIA
Cambodia
Coastal Use Zoning Plan for Province of Sihanoukville
Cambodia does not have a national policy on marine spatial planning. However, a Sihanoukville Coastal Use Zoning scheme has been developed and adopted by the National Coastal Steering committee in May 2005. Planning was supported by PEMSEA (Partnership for Environmental Management of Seas of East Asia)
China
Marine Functional Zoning Plans for EEZ and Territorial Sea
Marine Functional Zoning (MFZ) first proposed by government in 1998; Legal authority for MSP in Law on the Management of Sea Use enacted in 2001; MFZ plans approved for 8 provinces and municipalities in 2011 (Xiamen developed a MFZ plan in 1997), supported by PMSEA); MFZ Plan for EEZ approved in 2012.
Indonesia
Plan for District of Bontang (East Kalimantan Province)
Indonesia has adopted a national Law on the Sea in 2014; the basic ocean law of Indonesia establishes marine spatial planning as the tool to manage spatial use of coasts and oceans. MSP underway focused at municipal level with emphasis on climate change and zoning, e.g., plan for Berau Regency in East Kalimantan Province
MyanmarMSP Strategy for the EEZ of MyanmarMSP Strategy completed in 2016 with technical support from Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and financial support from the Helmsley Foundation.
Philippines
Coastal and Marine Areas within the municipal waters of Bataan
Integrated land- and sea-use zoning plan for Bataan completed at provincial level; adopted in 2006, supported by PEMSEA (Partnership for Environmental Management of Seas of East Asia)
Thailand
MSP in Trat ProvinceMSP in early stages in Trat Province (Eastern Gulf of Thailand) organized by Department of Marine and Coastal Resources under Thailand's new Marine and Coastal Resources Promotion Act (2015).
Viet Nam
MSP in Viet Nam Coastal Area and Territorial Sea
MSP underway in 8 coastal provinces and territorial sea within “Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development” Project with Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and World Bank
Viet Nam
Coastal use zoning plan of Danang city
Danang Master Plan Towards 2030 with zoning plan that includes both terrestrial and marine areas approved in 2010; Planning was supported by PEMSEA (Partnership for Environmental Management of Seas of East Asia)
OCEANIA
Australia
Bioregional planning in the EEZ
Five Bioregional Plans in South-east (2004), South-west (2007), North-west (2011), North (2011), and East (2012); established largest marine reserve system in world
Australia
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
Multiple-Use Marine Protected Area; original zoning plan developed between 1981-87; rezoning plan completed 1998-2003; Reef 2050 Long-term Sustainability Plan (Reef 2050) completed in 2015 (not a marine spatial plan); GBRMPA publishes 5-year Outlook Report since 2009.
Australia
State of Victoria MSP
New coastal and marine legislation proposed in 2016.
Fiji

MSP underway. Fiji committed in 2014 to establish 30% of its marine waters as MPAs. Supported by the Marine and Coastal Biodiversity Management in Pacific Island Countries project (MACBIO) being implemented by Pacific Island countries, GIZ and IUCN-Oceania with support from SPREP
New Zealand
Hauraki Gulf/Seachange Marine Spatial Plan
Stakeholder-driven marine spatial plan completed in December 2016
Solomon IslandsMSP underway. Decision taken by Cabinet in 2015 to prepare a marine spatial plan. Ocean Technical Working group established. Supported by the Marine and Coastal Biodiversity Management in Pacific Island Countries project (MACBIO) being implemented by Pacific Island countries, GIZ and IUCN-Oceania with support from SPREP
TongaMSP well underway. Decision taken by Cabinet in 2015 to prepare a marine spatial plan. Cross-government MSP Technical Working Group established. Supported by the Marine and Coastal Biodiversity Management in Pacific Island Countries project (MACBIO) being implemented by Pacific Island countries, GIZ and IUCN-Oceania with support from SPREP
VanuatuMSP underway. In 2016 the Council of Ministers approved Ocean Policy—a framework for coordinated, ecosystem-based MSP. Supported by the Marine and Coastal Biodiversity Management in Pacific Island Countries project (MACBIO) being implemented by Pacific Island countries, GIZ and IUCN-Oceania with support from SPREP
EUROPE
Belgium
Maritime Spatial Plan for the Belgian Part of the North Sea
First non-binding “Master Plan” (zoning) for the Belgian Part of the North Sea (EEZ) completed and implemented in 2003; innovative GAUFRE project completed by University of Gent in 2005; Marine Environment Act of 1999 amended in 2012 to include development of MSP; new Maritime Spatial Plan approved by Royal Decree in March 2014
Bulgaria
Trans-boundary planning at regional level with Romania; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Croatia
Zadar County Integrated Sea Use Management Plan
No national plan, but Zadar county Integrated Sea Use Management Plan is a legally-binding plan focusing on mariculture; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Cyprus
Pilot Plan for Coastal and Marine Area of the District of Limassol
No national MSP plan exists; pilot plan for District of Limassol completed in 2015; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Denmark
No national MSP plan exists; Danish Parliament has adopted Act on Maritime Spatial Planning; Sectoral plans exist for energy, fisheries, infrastructure, environmental protection, etc.; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Estonia
National Thematic Plan for Estonian Marine Waters or Maritime Spatial Plan of Estonia
MSP pilot projects underway in Parnu Bay (Gulf of Riga) and Sea Area around Hiiumaa and Saareman Islands since 2012; Legal authority under Estonian Planning Act of 2015; As a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Finland
MSP underway in the territorial sea by municipalities and regional councils; Legal authority for MSP in October 2016; As a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
France
No national-level MSP activities; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Germany
Maritime Spatial Plans for German Part of North and Baltic Seas
An overall development concept for the seas, a strategy for an integrated German maritime policy, published by Federal government in 2011; Federal marine spatial plans approved for Baltic and North Seas EEZ in 2009; Lander (State)-level plans (see next entries) have been approved covering the territorial seas of (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in 2016; Schleswig-Holstein in 2015; and Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony) in 2012
GermanyState Development Plan for Schleswig-HolsteinThe State Development Plan was last amended in 2015. Consultation on this plan will begin in late 2017.
GermanySpatial Development Plan for Mecklenburg-VorpommernThe Spatial Development Plan was extended to the 12-nm zone between 2003-2005 and adopted in 2005. Between 2013-2015 it was updated and became a legally binding act in 2016
GermanyState Development Plan for Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen)The Spatial Planning Programme (LROP) of Lower Saxony has been revised and amended in 2008 and 2012. Three current draft of the plan exist due to amendment processes in 2014, 2015 and 2016
Greece
No MSP plan at national level; sectoral plans only; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Iceland
National Planning Strategy (2015-2026)MSP underway through Skipulagsstofnun, the Icelandic National Planning Agency, since 2013
Ireland
Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth – an Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland No MSP at either national or regional levels, but MSP underway; strategic marine plan completed in 2012 with goals and enabling actions; Enablers Task Force report completed in 2014; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Italy
No MSP plan at national level, but pilot MSP activities underway, including ADRIPLAN (Adriatic-Ionian maritime spatial planning project, completed in 2015; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Latvia
Maritime Spatial Plan for Latvia
First draft of national MSP plan completed in 2016 (approval by Parliament expected in 2017); as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Lithuania
Comprehensive Plan of the Republic of Lithuania (including maritime territories)
New spatial planning legislation adopted in 2011; Pilot MSP Plan completed in 2011 for EEZ through BaltSeaPlan project; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Malta
Strategic Plan for Environment and Development
A strategic plan approved in 2015, but not a marine spatial plan (a rough zoning map was included); as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Netherlands
Maritime Spatial Plan for North Sea
EEZ Spatial Plan Completed in 2005; Revised and Incorporated in National Water Plan in 2009 and 2014; North Sea 2050 Spatial Agenda published in 2015
Norway
Integrated Ocean Management Plan for Barents Sea
MSP plan approved in 2006; revised in 2010
Norway
Integrated Ocean Management Plans for Norwegian Sea
MSP plan approved in 2009
Norway
Integrated Ocean Management Plans for North Sea
MSP plan approved in 2013
Poland
The Maritime Spatial Plan for Polish Maritime AreasRegulation on maritime spatial planning in Polish sea areas adopted in 2013; Non-binding pilot MSP projects completed under BaltSeaPlan, e.g., the Gulf of Gdansk, Middle Bank, and Pomeranian Bight; national MSP launched in 2016; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021.
Portugal
National Ocean Strategy (2013-2020) published in 2014, but no national marine spatial plan; Plano de Ordenamento do Espaço Marítimo (POEM), a study (2008-2010) setting out the economic, environmental and social importance of Portugal’s continental sea area completed in 2014; fundament law on MSP implemented in 2015; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Romania
Regional trans-boundary MSP with Bulgaria underway; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Russia
No formal MSP initiatives underway, but interest slowly developing; management of marine waters under jurisdiction of many national authorities
Slovenia
Spatial Planning Strategy for Slovenia2050
Maritime planning has been practiced only on a sectoral approach. MSP Directive in Slovenia will be implemented in the framework of existing spatial planning legislation; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
Spain
No marine plans exist, but MSP underway; A Royal Decree is being prepared for the transposition of the EU MSP Directive into Spanish legislation; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021. 
Sweden
Marine spatial plans anticipated for Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea, and the Skagerrak/Kattegat
No MSP plans in phase; National MSP legislation passed in 2014; New Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management created in 2011; Three marine spatial plans will be produced by municipal-level governments for the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea, and Skagerrak/Kattegat, covering the entire EEZ; as a Member State of the EU must have maritime spatial plan in place by 2021
United Kingdom
England Regional Marine Plans
Two marine regional plans (Inshore/Offshore East Regions) completed in April 2014; two South marine plans (Inshore/Offshore) drafted in 2016 (completion of 11 marine plans planned by 2021).
United Kingdom
Northern Ireland National Marine Plan
National MSP plan drafted and scheduled for public release in 2017
United Kingdom
Isle of Man Territorial Sea Plan
Planning underway since 2012, but current status in unknown.
United Kingdom
Scotland National Marine Plan
National Marine Plan completed and approved in 2015
United Kingdom
Scotland Regional Marine Plans
11 MSP regions (to 12nm) identified; the Firth of Clyde (draft plan completed in 2010) and Shetland Islands (draft plan completed in 2012) will be first to begin MSP; a pilot MSP project for the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters has also been completed in 2016
United Kingdom
Wales National Marine Plan
Draft National MSP Plan completed in 2015; approval expected in 2017
MIDDLE EAST
Israel
Israel Marine Plan
Pilot MSP project covering the EEZ of Israel completed in 2015 by Technion University
United Arab Emirates
Abu Dhabi Plan Maritime 2030
MSP plan and implementation plan completed and approved in 2016 by government
THE AMERICAS
Antigua & Barbuda
Barbuda Marine Zoning PlanBarbuda marine zoning plan completed in 2015 with technical support from the Waitt Institute under Blue Halo Initiative
Belize
Belize Integrated Coastal Zone Management PlanIntegrated Coastal Zone Management Plan, including territorial sea completed and approved in 2016; science support provided by the Natural Capital Project at Stanford University through the use of its ecosystem-based decision making tool, “InVEST”.
Canada
Marine Planning Partnership (MaPP) for the Canadian Pacific North Coast
MSP developed by Coastal First Nations and Province of British Columbia; four sub-regional MSP plans completed in 2015; implementation plans approved in August 2016; substantial funding provided by the Moore Foundation
Canada
Integrated Ocean Management Plan for the Beaufort Sea—2009 and beyond
Strategic plan for Beaufort Sea completed in 2009, not a marine spatial plan; approved, but not funded by national government
Canada
Placentia Bay/Grand Banks Large Ocean Management Area Integrated Management Plan (2012-2017)
Integrated management plan (2012) for the Gulf of St Lawrence; not a marine spatial plan, not approved or implemented
CanadaGulf of St. Lawrence Integrated Management PlanIntegrated management plan (2012) for the Grand Banks portion of the Newfoundland and Labrador continental shelf; not a marine spatial plan, not approved or implemented.
Canada
Nunavut Land Use Plan
Draft land use plan completed in 2016, and expected to be approved in 2017; includes marine areas of Nunavut Settlement Area (one fifth of area of Canadian Arctic)
Canada
Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area (PNCIMA) Plan
Draft plan completed in 2013; Strategic plan, not a marine spatial plan; not approved or implemented
Canada
Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Mangement Plan (ESSIM: Strategic Plan
Strategic plan completed in 2007, not a marine spatial plan; not approved approved or implemented by national government
Canada
Gulf of St. Lawrence Integrated Management Plan
Integrated management plan (2012) for the Grand Banks portion of the Newfoundland and Labrador continental shelf; not a marine spatial plan, not approved or implemented
Colombia
Coastal and marine areas of the Republic of ColombiaCoastal management plan focussing on coastal erosion has been under development since 2012, but MSP is still in pre-planning stage.
Costa Rica
Gulf of Nicoya
A pilot MSP project undertaken by the NGO MarViva in 2013, included the Gulf of Nicoya in Costa Rica, but the project was not implemented due to lack of government support
DominicaDominica Marine Spatial PlanEarly discussions to support “blue economy” in Dominica through MSP with World Bank through Caribbean Region Oceanscape Project (CROP); implemented by Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
GrenadaMarine Spatial PlanningEarly discussions to support “blue economy” in Grenada through MSP with World Bank through Caribbean Region Oceanscape Project (CROP); implemented by Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
Mexico
Regional Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) plansRegional plans for Gulf of California completed in 2006 and Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea in 2012, for North Pacific in 2015, and Central Pacific planned in 2018.
Mexico
Puerto Penasco-Puerto Lobos Biological-Fisheries Corridor Northern Gulf of California, Sonora
Local, bottom-up MSP process focussed on fishing and tourism led by CONAPESCA, the National Commission of Fisheries and Aquaculture; MSP process has been formally initiated and will focus on working with 6 communities
Montserrat (United Kingdom)
In February 2015, the Government of Montserrat and the Waitt Institute signed a MOU to launch Blue Halo Montserrat, a comprehensive ocean and coastal management project with a goal of sustainable management of Montserrat’s ocean and coastal waters
Netherlands (Curaçao)Blue Halo CuraçaoThe Government of Curaçao and the Waitt Institute signed a MOU to launch Blue Halo Curaçao, a comprehensive ocean and coastal management project with a goal of sustainable management of Curaçao's ocean and coastal waters.
Panama
Gulf of Montijo
A NGO (MarViva) project to assess the vulnerability of activities of coastal populations by ranking specific climate change adaptation actions and generating plans for all productive activities that depend on marine habitats and ecosystems
Puerto Rico (USA)Cabo Rojo Watershed Management PlanWatershed management plan including extensive baseline coral reef and water quality work
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis Marine Spatial PlanningPilot zoning plan completed in 2010 with The Nature Conservancy. The project did not focus only on conservation, fisheries, or another individual sector but instead took a multi-objective, integrated approach; currently in early discussions to support “blue economy” through MSP with World Bank through Caribbean Region Oceanscape Project (CROP); implemented by Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia Marine Spatial Plan
Early discussions to support “blue economy” in Saint Lucia through MSP with World Bank through Caribbean Region Oceanscape Project (CROP); implemented by Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
St Vincent and the Gredadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Marine Spatial Plan
Previous plan to develop a trans-boundary marine multi-use zoning plan that builds on the MarSIS initiative and the protected area systems of St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada; Currently in early discussions to support “blue economy” in St. Vincent and the Grenadines through MSP with World Bank through Caribbean Region Oceanscape Project (CROP); implemented by Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
Trinidad & TobagoIntegrated Coastal Zone Management Plan Policy FrameworkWhile focused on the terrestrial side, the ICZM policy framework (2015) defines the “coastal zone” to include the waters of the territorial sea and exclusive economic zone. One objective of the policy framework is to develop a marine spatial plan. In 2017 the Institute for Marine Affairs announced it would develop a pilot marine spatial plan for the northwest peninsula of Trinidad.
USA
Commonwealth of Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan
Marine spatial plan for Massachusetts State Waters approved (2009) and amended (2015); regulatory plan; substantial funding provided by the Moore Foundation
USA
Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan (SAMP)
Marine spatial plan approved and implemented in 2010
USA
State of Oregon Territorial Sea PlanOregon Territorial Sea Plan approved in 1994; amended in 2013 with renewable energy facilities section, approved and implemented
USA
Washington State Waters Marine Spatial Plan
Washington State Waters Marine Spatial Plan to be completed in 2016
USA
State of New York Ocean Action Plan (2017-2027)Action plan signed in January 2017
USA
Hawaii Ocean Resources Management Plan
Completed in 2013; a framework or strategic plan, but not a marine spatial plan
USA
US Northeast Ocean Plan
Northeast Regional Plan Covering Federal (EEZ) and State Waters completed draft May 2016; certified by National Ocean Council in December 2016; substantial funding provided by the Moore Foundation
USA
Mid-Atlantic Action Plan
Mid-Atlantic Regional Plan Covering Federal (EEZ) and State Waters draft completed July 2016; certified by National Ocean Council in December 2016; substantial funding provided by the Moore Foundation
USA
West Coast
Regional Planning Body formed; West Coast Ocean Data Portal initiated
USAPacific Islands
Regional Planning Body formed

 

Where is Marine Spatial Planning Happening?

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